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What are Railways? State the procedure of transporting goods by railway transport.
Transportation denotes carrying of men and cargoes from one place to another. It is a service which helps in carrying of men and cargoes from one place to another. There are four modes of transport like Road Transport, Railway transport, Water transport and Air Transport. The railways are designated as the pioneer in the modern mechanical transport. The first Indian railway train rolled from Bombay to Thane covering a distance of 34 kilometers. The railways played a significant role in the political, economic and social condition of a country. The railway transport system involves huge amount of expenditure as compared to other modes of transport. Still it has occupied a significant role in the transport system of a country.
Procedure of Transporting Goods
The following procedures are followed when goods are transported through railways:
- Selection of the Train: This is the first step of transporting goods over railways. The first thing to be selected whether goods are to be transported through a passenger train or goods train. The selection depends on how quickly the goods are to be transported. If the goods are to be delivered at an early date, the passenger train will be preferred than goods train. The nature of the commodity plays an important role in deciding goods train or passenger train. If the goods are of perishable nature, these are to be transported through a passenger train.
- Packing of Goods: After the selection of the train where the goods are to be dispatched, the next step is to pack the goods properly. The goods are packed either in wooden boxes or canvas sacks. The front side of the packets should clearly state the name and address of the receiver, the name of the station where goods are dispatched, railway zone and the destination. Sometimes additional instructions like fragile or glass with care is written to attract the attention of the railway people.
- Dispatch Note: After proper packing, goods are delivered to the booking office. Two notes called forwarding note and consignment are prepared. When goods are carried through a passenger train, a forwarding note is prepared and when goods are carried through a goods train, aconsignment note is prepared.
- Booking of goods: The railway booking office book the goods and issues a receipt clearly stating whether goods are carried at owners risk or railway’s risks. The booking work is done after the receipt of goods properly packed and a forwarding or consignment note.
- Dispatch of Railway Receipt: After booking the goods, the consignor obtains a railway receipt from the railway authorities. This RR is dispatched to the consignee who on presentation take the delivery of goods. The RR can be made self or on the name of the receiver. When it is made under the self name, it is endorsed in favour of the consignee otherwise goods can-not be released.
- Delivery of Goods: The consignee or the receiver of the goods may take the delivery of goods on presentation of railway receipt (RR). When the RR is marked freight due, goods are delivered after payment of the amount due. When the delivery of goods is not effected within the stipulated time, an extra charge is paid at the time of taking the delivery. When goods are carried in passenger train, the extra charge is called “Demurrage” and when goods are carried by goods train, the extra charge so paid is called “Wharefage”. The receiver is required to take the delivery of goods within 48 hours the train reach the station. Beyond this time extra charge is levied.
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